Railway knowledge class
Railway is the main artery of the national economy. By the end of 2016, China's high-speed rail operation mileage exceeded 22 thousand kilometers, ranking first in the world. By 2020, the national railway network will reach 150,000 kilometers, including 30,000 kilometers of high-speed railway, covering more than 80% of the major cities. At that time, China will build a modern high-speed railway network with "eight vertical and eight horizontal" main corridors as the framework, regional connection lines and inter-city railway supplements.
Railways are classified into national railways, local railways, joint-venture railways and private lines according to their categories. Today, we will tell you how it is divided.
State Railway, for short, is a railroad managed by the competent departments of the central government in various countries, which is different from local railways and factory-owned railways. The national railway occupies a very important position in the national economy, and is an important infrastructure for national development.
There are many railway grades in the state railway, which are divided into the first class of the state railway, the second level of the national railway and the third level of the national railway. Because the nature of National Railways is very important, the management of National Railways is not only an administrative management, but also a highly centralized and unified transportation management system for national railways.
Mainly by local self-investment or joint investment with other railways, to undertake local public passengers, goods short-distance transport tasks of the railway.
Compared with national railways, local railways differ in the change of management subjects. One is the competent department of railways under the State Council and the other is the local people's government. The former represents the country and represents the overall economic interests of the central people's government, while the latter is also a part of the country, it represents the local region. Economic interests.
Joint venture railway
Chongqing invested 33 billion 100 million yuan to participate in 14 Joint Venture Railways
Generally, it refers to the railways jointly constructed and operated by China Railway Corporation and local governments, enterprises or other investors, including the restructured Railway Branch Limited Liability Company or Limited Company. Joint venture railways have broken the situation of single investor in railway construction in China for many years, mobilized the enthusiasm of both central and local governments, broadened financing channels, and initially formed a diversified pattern of investor in railway construction.
The original Shandong special railway line for flood control
Railways that are managed by enterprises or other units and provide transport services exclusively for their own enterprises or within their own units. Generally speaking, most of the special railways are built by large and medium-sized enterprises with their own investment and their own locomotives and vehicles, which are used to complete their own transport tasks. Some military enterprises and forest management departments have built some special railways for transport production.
Railway special line
Railway special line for transporting coal
It refers to bifurcated lines managed by enterprises or other units that are in line with national railways or other railway lines. Special railway lines and special railways are built by enterprises or other units mainly to serve the internal transport of their own enterprises. The difference between them is that special railways generally have their own power and means of transport, forming a set of systematic transport organization for transportation and production in the interior, while special railway lines are only one line. The use of transport power is the power of the railway that is in line with it.