Classification of turnout
Turnout is an important equipment to realize track transformation and widely exists on railway lines.
Now, the automatic turnout controlled by electro hydraulic control has replaced the backward artificial channel. Because the number of joints in the turnout area is large and the curve is complex, it is often the high incidence area of traffic safety accident. The types of switches commonly used include single turnouts, three turnouts, crossing switches, cross section basins and cross route basins. Different kinds of basin structures are shown in Figure 1.
(1) a single turnout has a main line and a side line. The switch is opened through the action of the switch rail, and the side line is opened and the main line is opened. Single turnout is the most frequently used and typical turnout type on site.
(2) symmetric turnout is a special type of single switch. The whole turnout is symmetrical to the middle line of the main line or the middle branch of the cross angle. There is no direct and lateral points when the train passes through. When the length of the rail is the same, the angle between the edge of the rail and the direction of the main line is about half of the single switch. When the radius of the guide curve is equal, the length of the symmetric turnout is shorter than that of a single switch. When the other conditions are the same, the radius of the guide curve is about two times that of the single open switch; when the radius and length of the curve remain the same, the ratio of the single opening can be compared to the single opening. A fork in a smaller number of switches. Therefore, when the length of the turnout is fixed, a large radius of the guide curve can be obtained by using a symmetrical switch, and the crossing speed can be improved. In the condition of keeping the same crossing speed, the length of the turnout can be shortened by the symmetric turnout, thus the length of the station field can be shortened and the effective length of the track can be increased. These characteristics of symmetrical turnouts enable them to be applied on the peak and triangle lines and are used on industrial railway lines and urban light rail lines.
(3) three turnouts, also known as compound symmetrical side turnouts, are commonly used in compound turnouts. It is equivalent to two groups of single side turnouts with opposite sides, but its length is much shorter than that of the two groups of single turnouts. Therefore, it is commonly used in bridge ferry head, drive and marshalling yard, and narrow terrain with special needs. Three the turnout is not suitable for a group of switches, which have poor operating conditions and are not very difficult.
(4) the duplex turnout is equivalent to the two sets of single open turnout to be laid, which realizes the crossing of the non parallel track, but has the advantages of short length of the turnout, many routes and two main driving directions, so it can save the land, improve the shunting capacity and improve the running condition of the train. The intersection is composed of Diamond Cross, switch and connection curve, etc. .
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