Cause analysis of rail fracture:
Ø 1. nuclear injury caused by material defects
Ø During the manufacture of rails, there are defects such as white spots, bubbles, non-metallic inclusions, segregation and shrinkage hole residues in ingots due to insufficient removal of metallurgical defects and ingots. Under the repeated action of train loads, the fatigue sources of these defects gradually expand, resulting in harmful nuclear damage.
Ø 2.. Nuclear injury caused by contact fatigue.
Ø In heavy haul section with large traffic volume, due to the excessive contact stress between wheel and rail, under multiple train loads, the top surface peeling or other surface damage of rail head first occurs, and then develops into nuclear damage. The general source is located inside the top and side 5-15mm of the rail head.
Ø 3.. Nuclear damage caused by fish scales (breakage).
Ø Because of the high traffic density, fast running speed, small radius curve and heavy load section, fish scales often occur on the inner surface of the rail head on the curve when the train runs in the curve section. The crack tip is often used as the source of fatigue, and nuclear damage is gradually formed, which is characterized by rapid development and multifaceted nuclei.
Ø 4.. A nuclear injury caused by abrasion and welding.
Ø When a locomotive starts or climbs a slope, the wheels turn idly, and when the locomotive brakes and slides, the intense friction between the wheels and the rails produces high temperature, which makes the top metal structure of the rail hard and brittle. Under the action of the train load, a network crack forms and develops downward into a nuclear damage. When the rail surface is scratched and debris is lost, there are some defects because the welding surface is not polished clean, and there are some micro-cracks or bad welding repair technology. These defects form nuclear damage under the welding repair layer under the action of locomotive load.
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